What is Public Participation?

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Spectrum of Public Participation

The City of Bloomington utilizes the International Association of Public Participations (IAP2) Spectrum of Public Participation. The spectrum was designed to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public’s role in any public participation process. The Spectrum is used internationally, and it is found in public participation plans around the world.

This chart demonstrates the 5 areas on the spectrum. We created this version of the spectrum to help the public understand how their input will be used in any project. Throughout the Let's Talk Bloomington site you will notice this spectrum on the right side of each project page. The highlighted areas demonstrate which area(s) along the spectrum are being used in that specific project.


IAP2 Core Values*

As an international leader in public participation, IAP2 has developed the "IAP2 Core Values for Public Participation" for use in the development and implementation of public participation processes. These core values were developed over a two year period with broad international input to identify those aspects of public participation which cross national, cultural, and religious boundaries. The purpose of these core values is to help make better decisions which reflect the interests and concerns of potentially affected people and entities.

Core Values for the Practice of Public Participation

  1. Public participation is based on the belief that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process.
  2. Public participation includes the promise that the public's contribution will influence the decision.
  3. Public participation promotes sustainable decisions by recognizing and communicating the needs and interests of all participants, including decision makers.
  4. Public participation seeks out and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision.
  5. Public participation seeks input from participants in designing how they participate.
  6. Public participation provides participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way.
  7. Public participation communicates to participants how their input affected the decision.


*Borrowed from the IAP2 website.

Spectrum of Public Participation

The City of Bloomington utilizes the International Association of Public Participations (IAP2) Spectrum of Public Participation. The spectrum was designed to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public’s role in any public participation process. The Spectrum is used internationally, and it is found in public participation plans around the world.

This chart demonstrates the 5 areas on the spectrum. We created this version of the spectrum to help the public understand how their input will be used in any project. Throughout the Let's Talk Bloomington site you will notice this spectrum on the right side of each project page. The highlighted areas demonstrate which area(s) along the spectrum are being used in that specific project.


IAP2 Core Values*

As an international leader in public participation, IAP2 has developed the "IAP2 Core Values for Public Participation" for use in the development and implementation of public participation processes. These core values were developed over a two year period with broad international input to identify those aspects of public participation which cross national, cultural, and religious boundaries. The purpose of these core values is to help make better decisions which reflect the interests and concerns of potentially affected people and entities.

Core Values for the Practice of Public Participation

  1. Public participation is based on the belief that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process.
  2. Public participation includes the promise that the public's contribution will influence the decision.
  3. Public participation promotes sustainable decisions by recognizing and communicating the needs and interests of all participants, including decision makers.
  4. Public participation seeks out and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision.
  5. Public participation seeks input from participants in designing how they participate.
  6. Public participation provides participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way.
  7. Public participation communicates to participants how their input affected the decision.


*Borrowed from the IAP2 website.

Page published: 31 Mar 2022, 12:19 PM